Recommended Dietary Intakes 
Adults – 150 mcg; 
Pregnant women – 120 mcg


This Mineral Is Essential For..

  • metabolising fats.

  • physical and mental development.

  • thyroid gland.

  • preventing goiter.

As part of several thyroid hormones, iodine controls nutrient metabolism; nerve and muscle function; skin, hair, tooth, and nail condition.


Iodised salt, kelp, seafood, salt water fish and vegetables grown in iodine-rich soils are excellent sources of this mineral. Also found in garlic, mushrooms, sesame seeds, sea salt, soybeans, spinach.


You usually will not have a deficiency in this mineral and supplements are unnecessary.

Deficiency Can Cause…

This is very uncommon, however, some symptoms include –

  • weight gain,

  • hair loss,

  • listlessness,

  • insomnia,

  • mental retardation.

Excessive iodine can cause a metallic taste in the mouth, sores in the mouth, swollen salivary glands, nervousness, headache, rashes and can lead to thyroid hyperactivity, diarrhoea, and vomiting



Recommended Dietary Intakes 
Men – 7 mg 
Pre-menopausal women – 12 -16 mg. 
Post-menopausal women – 5 – 7 mg.
Pregnant women – add 10 – 20 mg.


This Mineral Is Essential For.

  • transportation and storage of oxygen in the blood and muscles.

  • energy production.

  • immune functioning.

  • growth.

  • produces haemoglobin and myoglobin.


Red meat, chicken, seafood, eggs and other animal products, dark-green vegetables, avocados, whole grains, nuts, dried fruit, enriched breads and cereals and other plant foods.


Coffee, tea, soy-based foods, antacids, ulcers and tetracycline inhibit iron absorption. You need to have enough hydrochloric acid in the stomach for iron to be absorbed properly. Other substances required for proper absorption of iron include – vitamin Acopper,manganesemolybdenum, and the B vitamins.

Women need more iron before menopause than after, because menstruation causes iron loss each month. People who have special iron intake needs include menstruating or pregnant women, children under two years of age, vegetarians, anyone with bleeding conditions such as haemorrhoids or bleeding stomach ulcers, and anyone taking the medications listed above.

Deficiency Can Cause…



  • anaemia

  • fatigue, paleness, dizziness.

  • sensitivity to cold.

  • listlessness

  • irritability and nervousness.

  • poor concentration.

  • heart palpitations.

  • susceptibility to infection.

  • brittle hair or hair loss.

  • digestive problems.

  • ridges running lengthwise on nails.

  • obesity.

Multivitamins will give you extra iron. It is not advisable to take straight iron tablets unless specifically recommended.

Too much iron can also cause problems, such as – inhibited absorption of phosphorus, interference with immune function, and may increase your risk of developing cancer,cirrhosis, or heart attack. Symptoms of iron toxicity include diarrhoea, vomiting, headache, dizziness, fatigue, stomach cramps, and weak pulse



Recommended Dietary Intakes 
Men – 320 mg
Women – 270 mg
Pregnant women – add 30 mg

This Mineral Is Essential For…

  • production of energy.

  • assists in the assimilation of calcium and potassium.

  • a healthy heart, bones, muscles and blood vessels.

  • production of genetic materials.


Dairy products, fish, nuts, meat and seafoods


With the help of vitamin B6, magnesium can help to reduce kidney stones, prevent heart disease, bone abnormalities and some types of cancer. May help in alcoholism.

High levels of zinc, using diuretics, having diarrhoea and consuming alcohol will increase the need for magnesium.

Deficiencies Can Cause…


  • confusion.

  • fatigue.

  • mental and heart problems.

  • hypertension.

  • asthma.

  • migraine.

  • kidney stones.


Recommended Dietary Intakes


Adults – 2.0 mg to 5 mg (There is no amount specified in Australia, however these levels are thought to be adequate).

This Mineral Is Essential For.


  • proper formation and maintenance of bone, cartilage, and connective tissue.

  • contributing to the synthesis of proteins and genetic material.

  • producing energy from foods.

  • it acts as an antioxidant.

  • normal blood clotting.

  • nervous system.

  • blood sugar regulation


Brown rice, nuts, seeds, avocados, seaweeds, wheat germ, beans, whole grains, peas, and strawberries.


Deficiencies are rare and toxic levels are rare.

Deficiencies Can Cause…


  • atherosclerosis.

  • confusion.

  • convulsions.

  • eye problems.

  • diabetes.

  • osteoporosis.



Recommended Dietary Intakes 
adults – 75 – 250 mcg (however there is no set recommended dietary intake in Australia for this mineral.)


This Mineral Is Essential For.

  • nitrogen metabolism

  • iron utilisation

  • carbohydrate metabolism


Peas, beans, cereals, pastas, dark greenleafy vegetables, yeast, milk, and organ meats.


People generally get enough through diet; deficiency is virtually nonexistent. Toxicity is also rare. Tablets are available but it is not recommended that they are taken as higher doses than normal can cause toxicity. Too much of this mineral can cause weight loss, slow growth, anaemia, diarrhoea, increased levels of uric acid and swollen joints.

Deficiencies Can Cause…


  • gum disease

  • cancers

  • impotence in older me



Recommended Dietary Intakes 

Adults – 1000 mg

 This Mineral Is Essential For.

  • transfer of genetic information.

  • for healthy bones and teeth.

  • balance of acid in body

  • energy

  • kidney function.

  • cell growth.

  • contraction of heart muscle.


Found in most foods – soft drinks, asparagus, bran cereal, rice bran, salmon and other fish, brewer yeast, corn, dairy products, eggs, dried fruit, garlic, nuts, sunflower, pumpkin seeds, meats, poultry, whole grains.


If too much phosphorus is taken, it can interfere with calcium levels. Deficiencies of phosphorus are rare.

Do not take excess phosphorus if you suffer from kidney or liver disease, heart failure andhigh blood pressure. An adequate balance of phosphorus, magnesium and calcium should be maintained always.



  • irritation of the mucous membranes and inflammation of tissue.

  • destruction of bone.

  • anxiety, fatigue.

  • breathing difficulties.

  • irritability.

  • numbness.

  • trembling



Recommended Dietary Intakes 
Adults – 1950 – 5460 mg


This Vitamin Is Essential For.

Potassium is distributed throughout the body fluids including the blood, lymph and fluid in the cells. also

  • water balance in the body.

  • contraction of muscles.

  • balance of acid and alkali.

  • nerves.

  • energy metabolism.

  • helps prevent stroke.

  • helps maintain proper blood pressure.

  • protein synthesis.

  • carbohydrate metabolism.


Lean meats, raw vegetables, and fruits (especially citrus fruits, bananas, avocados and potatoes), dairy products, fish, poultry.


There are many things that can affect the levels of potassium in the body. These include –kidney disorders, diarrhoea, the overuse of laxatives, cigarette smoking and caffeine.

Deficiencies Can Cause…

  • nausea or headaches.

  • vomiting and diarrhoea or constipation.

  • dry skin or acne

  • muscle cramps and weakness.

  • poor reflexes.

  • poor concentration and depression or nervousness.

  • heart arrhythmia’s.

Slight potassium deficiency causes no symptoms



Recommended Dietary Intakes 
Adults – 920 – 2300 mg

This Mineral Is Essential For.


  • water balance in the body

  • muscle contraction

  • nerves

  • energy

  • stomach acid production


Most of the sodium we receive is from table salt, processed foods, soft drinks, meats, shellfish, condiments, snack foods, food additives, and over-the-counter laxatives.


We generally consume far too much sodium. It is more likely that we consume excessive sodium than too little.  Excessive sodium intake can result in high blood pressure,potassium deficiency, liver and kidney disease.

Keeping sodium intake within reasonable limits is critical for long-term health.

Deficiency Can Cause…


(Overexertion can cause the deficiency).

  • nausea.

  • dehydration.

  • muscle cramps, and other symptoms of heatstroke.

  • anorexia

  • fatigue.

  • flatulence.

  • headache.

  • low blood pressure



This Vitamin Is Essential For.

  • disinfects the blood.

  • resists bacteria.

  • aids in oxidation reactions.

  • aids in bile secretion.

  • protects against toxins.

  • aids the construction of connective tissue.

  • helps bones, teeth, skin, hair and nails.


Found in protein foods – egg, seafood, beans, milk products, nuts and meats.


Sulphur is a component of amino acids and is part of every cell, especially hair, nails, muscle, and skin. Neither sulfur deficiency nor toxicity occurs in humans. Inorganic sulfur ingested in large amounts can be harmful



Recommended Dietary Intakes 
Men – 750 mcg
Women – 750 mcg

This vitamin is essential for.


  • eyes – vision (especially at night), inflammation.

  • skin – acne, psoriasis, dry or scaly skin, boils and other skin problems.

  • Hair – dandruff, dry or unhealthy hair

  • nails – peeling

  • mucous membranes – nose, throat, respiratory system, and digestive system, vagina, urinary tract and bladder.

  • bones and teeth – proper growth and development.

  • immune system – stimulates wound healing and is useful to ward off colds and flu.

  • youth – slows the aging process.

  • counteracts the toxic effects of smoking.

  • may help prevent some types of cancer.

Beta carotene which is related to vitamin A, acts either as a precursor to vitamin A or as an antioxidant. It is a natural food substance.
Your skin stores beta carotene and your body metabolises it to produce vitamin A as needed. 
It is reported that beta carotene increases your resistance to infection and may help prevent some cancers and vision problems. Beta carotene may also reduce the risk of heart disease.


Orange and yellow vegetables and fruits; dark-green leafy vegetables; whole milk, cream, egg yolks and butter; and animal livers, fish liver oils, garlic, and alfalfa.


Vitamin A is fat-soluble, and therefore can is stored in the body long-term and supplements are generally not recommended. Too much vitamin A over long periods can cause headaches, vision problems, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, dry and flaking skin, or an enlarged liver or spleen. 
No overdose can happen with beta-carotene however, as the body controls the conversion of it from this source.

Deficiencies Can Cause…


  • dry hair or skin

  • dry or inflamed eyes

  • poor growth

  • night blindness

  • insomnia

  • boils

  • continuous colds and flu

  • skin disorders

  • loss of appetite and weight.

  • diarrhoea.